About Us

Who We Are

The Spruce Pets offers practical, real-life tips and training advice to help you care for your pet. We help over 10 million users each month find the information they need to provide the best possible life for their pets. Our 20-year-strong library of over 4,000 in-depth articles covers a variety of topics and pet animals, from cats and dogs, to betta fish and pot bellied pigs. Our team of writers, including trainers, Registered Vet Technicians (RVTs) and Doctors of Veterinary Medicine (DVMs), produce and update informative articles full of valuable insights honed from years of hands-on experience. We are also wholly committed to diversity, equity, and inclusion.

The Spruce Pets is part of The Spruce family of sites, including The Spruce, The Spruce Eats and The Spruce Crafts, covering home decor, home repair, recipes, cooking techniques, pets and crafts. The Spruce brand is one of the top 10 largest lifestyle properties online according to comScore, a leading Internet measurement company. Our 45+ expert writers have extensive backgrounds and expertise in their topics, including professional contractors, landscapers, chefs, cookbook authors, registered vet technicians, and well known crafting bloggers.


Veterinary Review Board

We know that finding trustworthy veterinary advice online can be difficult—the internet is full of misinformation or personal opinion masquerading as fact. To make caring for your pet easier, we launched The Spruce Pets Veterinary Review Board, comprised of top board-certified vet professionals. Our goal is to provide you with well-researched, fact-checked information so you can keep your pet happy and healthy.

The Veterinary Review Process

You may notice a badge appearing in some of our content. The badge signifies that a board member has reviewed and edited the article, taking special care to confirm that the information presented is both accurate and up-to-date. Click the link below to learn more about our process.

Our Veterinary Review Board

Meet some of our Veterinary Review Board members below.

Nick Saint-Erne
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
Nick Saint-Erne, DVM

Nick Saint-Erne is a Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DVM) with 35 years of experience treating dogs, cats, ferrets, rabbits, rodents, reptiles, fish, exotic pets, and zoo animals. Nick currently practices at the Arizona Exotic Animal Hospital and is a consulting veterinarian for several zoos and aquariums in Arizona.

In addition to his veterinary work, Nick has owned pet stores and has been involved in the pet industry as a technical writer for the training materials and customer pet care handouts for a major pet store chain. He has worked with the Pet Industry Joint Advisory Council (PIJAC) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in drafting programs to improve the care of pets in pet stores and to reduce the risk of spreading zoonotic diseases.

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Anna O'Brien
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
Anna O'Brien, DVM

Anna O’Brien is a Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DVM) with over 10 years of professional veterinary experience treating horses, dogs, cats, cows, camels, monkeys, honeybees, and more. Prior to joining The Spruce Pets Veterinary Review Board, Anna was an associate vet at Link Veterinary Associates, volunteer vet for Adams County Humane Society, and contributing editor for Horse Illustrated.

Anna has worked at various small animal clinics and spent a considerable amount of time as a large animal ambulatory veterinarian in central Maryland and southern Pennsylvania, performing on-farm surgeries such as horn removal, abdominal surgeries, and C-sections, and working with farmers to ensure their herds are following appropriate preventative health programs.

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Nelva J. Bryant
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
Nelva J. Bryant, DVM, MPH

Dr. Nelva Bryant is a Doctor of Veterinary Medicine and a retired LCDR in the U.S. Public Health service with 27+ years professional experience. Currently working in the airline industry, her mission is to improve pet travel via promoting animal welfare, education, and veterinary oversight.

Her knowledge of veterinary pathology, infectious and zoonotic diseases, veterinary public health, the CDC’s dog importation regulations, international and national animal transportation regulations, and airline live animal transportation policies has made her an expert in the field of animal transportation.

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Jennifer Coates
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, Journalist
Jennifer Coates, DVM

Jennifer Coates is a Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DVM) with over 25 years of experience in veterinary care and animal welfare. Before joining The Spruce Pets, she was an associate veterinarian at Home to Heaven In-Home Pet Hospice and Euthanasia (CO), Spring Creek Animal Hospital (WY), and Petersburg Animal Hospital (VA), as well as former chief of staff at Healthy Pet Animal Hospital (VA).

Jennifer has published several books, short stories, and thousands of web articles that all relate to veterinary medicine, pet care, and the human-animal bond. She has also appeared on radio and television in her role as a veterinary consultant.

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Lauren Smith
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, Relief Veterinarian
Lauren Smith, DVM

Lauren Smith is a Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DVM) with over 10 years of experience, and five years of experience writing veterinary content. Lauren was previously a veterinarian at Bay Shore Animal Hospital and at VCA Commack Animal Hospital.

After receiving her Doctor of Veterinary Medicine degree, she worked for two animal hospitals as a full-time general practitioner before starting her own business as a relief veterinarian, where she travels from hospital to hospital providing basic veterinary care to patients when their regular veterinarian cannot be there. She also has experience working in emergency hospitals providing urgent care to animal patients on nights and weekends.

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Joanne Intile
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary oncologist, journalist
Joanne Intile, DVM, MS, DACVIM

Joanne Intile is a Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DVM) with 14 years of experience as a veterinary oncologist. She currently practices as Assistant Clinical Professor of Medical Oncology at North Carolina State University. Before joining The Spruce Pets, Joanne was a private practice oncologist.

While working full time at her last clinic, Dr. Intile also worked as an adjunct instructor in the veterinary science technology program at Suffolk County Community College teaching veterinary practice management, clinical laboratory procedures, and pharmacology. At North Carolina State University, she trains veterinary students, interns, and residents primarily in the discipline of medical oncology, but also plays a significant role in teaching medical communication skills.

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Monica Tarantino
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
Monica Tarantino, DVM

Monica Tarantino is a Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DVM) with five years of experience as a general practitioner of small animal medicine. She currently works full time as a Level-2 Fear Free certified doctor at an AAHA accredited small animal hospital. Before The Spruce, Monica was a mentor for first-year Animal Medical Hospital veterinary graduates.

Monica has recently begun contributing veterinary content to a number of digital publications, and is eager to share her knowledge with a broader audience. Her interests include emergency medicine, internal medicine, geriatric pet health, and business leadership. She frequently rescues in-need pets, and owns four rescue dogs and two rescue cats with the occasional foster animal for good measure.

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Natasha Diehl
Small and Exotic Animal Veterinarian
Natasha Diehl

Dr. Natasha Diehl is a Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DVM) who graduated from Iowa State University in May 2020. She completed an internship in small and exotic animal general practice and emergency medicine in California and is currently in an exotic animal speciality internship in Indianapolis. She continues to work with a team of veterinarians with a wide range of knowledge within the field and exotic and small pet ownership.

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Amy Fox
Veterinarian and Medical Writer
Dr. Amy Fox

Dr. Fox received her veterinary education at Cornell University and has 15-plus years of experience in the field. She has worked in emergency, shelter, medicine, surgery, and general medicine. Dr. Fox is passionate about client education and making sure pet parents have the most up-to-date, accurate, and accessible information to empower them as caregivers and companions.  

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Petal Smart
Veterinarian and Medical Editor
Dr Petal Smart

Petal Smart, DVM has been an editor of materials in the biomedical and veterinary sciences since 2015. She has edited more than 700 assignments, including research studies published in various academic journals, continuing medical education materials, and articles on pet health.

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Nancy Turner
Nancy Turner, DVM

Dr. Nancy Turner is a small animal veterinarian with 14-plus years of clinical experience. She received her Doctor of Veterinary Medicine degree at the College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences. She has worked in clinical primary practice, emergency medicine, and mobile practices in the Dallas area and is the author of "German Shorthairs: How to Be Your Dog's Best Friend: From understanding their personalities to health issues and more" (2012).

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Juliane Evans
Dr. Juliane Evans

Dr. Juliane Evans is a general practitioner of veterinary medicine and certified veterinary acupuncturist who treats companion animals in the Triangle region of North Carolina. She earned her degree from Oklahoma State University and certificate from Chi University, and has had nearly a decade of experience in the field of veterinary medicine. Dr. Evans has worked in small animal medicine hospitals in Pennsylvania and North Carolina.

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Marla Fischl
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
Marla J. Fischl, DVM

Dr. Fischl received her Doctor of Veterinary Medicine degree from The University of Florida College of Veterinary Medicine in Gainesville, Florida. She has extensive experience in equine medicine, including horse racing, equine sports and performance medicine, pleasure horse, and equine regulatory medicine. She has also provided small animal veterinary care for the racetrack stable companions, dogs, and cats.

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Fact Checking

The Spruce Pet's team of experienced fact checkers provides a critical layer of review to ensure content integrity. This group of professionals is selected and vetted for journalistic and subject matter expertise. They are tasked with researching all statements of fact to ensure that news and health information is accurate and comprehensive and statistics are properly sourced and up to date. Articles that have been officially fact checked will display a "fact check" badge, as well as the name of the fact checker at the top of the page near the author.

Our Writers

All of our writers were carefully chosen for their extensive experience in their subject areas.

Meet Some of Our Writers

Jenna Stregowski
Veterinary Administrator, Registered Veterinary Technician, Pet Health Expert
Jenna Stregowski, RVT, pet health expert for The Spruce Pets

Jenna Stregowski is a Registered Veterinary Technician (RVT) with more than 20 years of experience working in veterinary medicine and has been writing for The Spruce since it launched in 2017. Prior to The Spruce, Jenna wrote about veterinary medicine for About.com for nine years.

Jenna began her veterinary career working in various animal clinics and hospitals around Atlanta until she earned her RVT certification in 2007. Jenna is currently the Hospital Manager at Inman Park Animal Hospital in Atlanta, Georgia. She continues to regularly attend veterinary conferences, seminars, and continuing education courses in order to keep up to date on the latest in veterinary science.

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Adrienne Kruzer
Licensed Veterinary Technician
Adrienne Kruzer, RVT, LVT

Adrienne Kruzer is a Registered Veterinary Technician (RVT), Licensed Veterinary Technician (LVT), and Level 2 Fear Free Certified professional that has been writing for The Spruce since 2017.

Adrienne has worked with a wide range of animals—from cats and dogs to exotics like sugar gliders and degus during her 10+ years as an RVT and LVT. She currently works as the Veterinary Nursing Program Relations Manager for Veterinary Emergency Group.

Adrienne received her Associate of Applied Science in Veterinary Technology ('07) and her Associate of Arts ('06) from Cuyahoga Community College and graduated summa cum laude with her Bachelors of Science in Business Administration ('21) from Baker College.

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Liz Waynick
Registered Veterinary Technician
Liz Waynick, RVT

Liz Waynick is a Registered Veterinary Technician (RVT) who currently works full time at a practice located just outside of Cleveland, OH. 

Previously, Liz spent the last 10 years working in several multi-doctor veterinary hospitals utilizing her expertise and skills in anesthesia and dentistry as a surgical assistant as well as a dental technician. She passed the Veterinary Technician National Examination in January 2010 and was awarded her license as an RVT. She completes several hours of continuing education each year to stay up-to-date on care for her patients.

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Editorial Guidelines

At The Spruce, we take great pride in the quality of our content. Our writers create original, accurate, engaging content that is free of ethical concerns or conflicts. If you ever come across an article that you think needs to be improved, please reach out by emailing contact@thesprucepets.com.

To learn more, please see our full Editorial Policy and Standards page.

Product Reviews

Our product reviews are independent and based on research and product testing — if you visit links within our content, we may receive commissions from your purchases, but we never receive any compensation or consideration for the content of our recommendations. Learn more about our review process below.

Diversity & Inclusion

At The Spruce, our mission is to help everyone make their best home. We cannot stay silent about the injustices, discrimination, hate, and fear that many in our community are facing. We need to do our part to fight systemic racism and oppression; things need to change.

We can do more. We are responsible for using our platform to spread the message of inclusivity, equality, and human rights. We are listening, and we are learning. We will do better. Black lives matter. Read more about our pledge to make our site more inclusive and promote diversity.

Our Team

Our editorial team has extensive category experience and have worked at leading publications and websites in their field.

Mélanie Berliet
General Manager & Senior Vice President
Mélanie Berliet, General Manager and Senior Vice President of The Spruce Pets

Mélanie is the General Manager and Senior Vice President of The Spruce Pets, The Spruce, The Spruce Crafts, and MyDomaine.

Prior to joining Dotdash in 2018, Mélanie was the Chief Editorial Director of Thought Catalog, where she led all content initiatives and managed strategic partnerships.

Mélanie has 15 years of experience creating, managing, and publishing lifestyle content across platforms. She has worked as a producer and writer for brands including MTV, Vanity Fair, Elle, New York Magazine, The Atlantic, Cosmopolitan, Salon, Esquire, and iHeartRadio.

She earned a B.A. in Political Economy from Georgetown University.

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Emily Manchester
Editorial and Strategy Director
Emily Manchester, Editorial & Strategy Director of The Spruce

Emily is the Editorial and Strategy Director for The Spruce Pets, The Spruce, The Spruce Crafts, and MyDomaine.

She has been with Dotdash since 2016. Emily was a part of the team that launched the original Spruce site in 2017. She began at Dotdash as an Editor before transitioning to the Growth and Strategy team where she operated as an SEO Manager for the The Spruce and MyDomaine brands and several others.

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Amy Sheehan
Design Director
Amy Sheehan, Design Director for The Spruce Pets

Amy joined the Dotdash team as Design Director for The Spruce Pets, The Spruce, The Spruce Crafts, and MyDomaine in March 2021. She leads the design of both sites and develops brand visuals of digital and physical products. She is an avid DIYer and home decor enthusiast.

Prior to joining Dotdash Amy was the Art Director for Insider Studios, the branded content team for Business Insider and Insider where she designed for numerous legacy brands such as Cartier, Chase, Lincoln, and United.

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Caroline Utz
Senior Editor
Caroline Utz, Senior Editor for The Spruce Pets

Caroline has been with The Spruce Pets since 2019.

Prior to The Spruce Pets, she worked in editorial for the home departments of Good Housekeeping, Woman’s Day, and Redbook magazines on both print and digital content, covering everything from the latest decor trends to the best cleaning hacks. She also spent time freelancing for Martha Stewart Weddings. Caroline is also currently the Senior Editor for The Spruce and MyDomaine, both a part of the Dotdash family of brands. She received a B.A. in journalism and leadership studies from the University of Richmond and lives in New York City.

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Jenny Hughes
Jenny Hughes, Editor for The Spruce

Jenny joined The Spruce in early 2021 as an Editor.

Prior to The Spruce, Jenny worked for more than four years in digital media primarily as an editor and content manager with a focus on strategizing for growth. In addition to her passion for home and DIY, Jenny is a proud dog mom.

She earned a B.A. in French from Bowdoin College.

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Lauren Phillips
Lauren Phillips, Editor at The Spruce Pets

Lauren is a former editor at The Spruce Pets, The Spruce, and The Spruce Crafts. She joined the team in 2021.

Previously, Lauren was an editor and writer at Real Simple and Coastal Living, among other print and digital outlets, focusing on home decor, cleaning, organizing, holidays, entertaining, and other topics. She has more than five years of print and digital media experience and graduated from Elon University.

A self-proclaimed unadulterated dog lover, Lauren doesn’t currently have a dog, but she’s working on a four-year plan to get one.

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Kate McKenna
Senior Editor
Kate McKenna, Editor at The Spruce Pets

Kate is a Senior Editor for The Spruce Pets, The Spruce, and The Spruce Crafts and has been at Dotdash since July 2019. She assigns, publishes, and updates articles, as well as writes and strategizes for The Spruce Pets' newsletters.

She previously worked as a contributing writer for POPSUGAR and as a digital content marketer for small businesses. Her writing has also appeared on The Spruce, MyDomaine, and Stacker.

Kate studied art history at the University of Guelph and got her Master of Arts in Journalism at the University of Western Ontario. 

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Hilary Aver
Hilary Aver

Hilary is an Editor at The Spruce Pets, The Spruce, and The Spruce Crafts. She began at Dotdash in 2021 and has held positions at The Cut, Vanity Fair, and ELLE.com. Her writing has also been featured on Refinery29, Bustle, BuzzFeed, Esquire.com, and more.

Hilary attended the Missouri School of Journalism, where she majored in both magazine writing and editing, focusing on news and lifestyle content for a city publication and graduated with a journalism degree in December 2014. Ten days later, she moved to New York City to begin her continued education in newsrooms and magazine offices across the industry.

She's the proud owner of a cattle dog mix named Georgie.

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Jane Kim
Associate Editor
Jane Kim

Jane Kim is an Associate Editor at The Spruce Pets with over 5 years experience covering lifestyle, fashion, beauty, and travel. In her role at The Spruce Pets, Jane edits and publishes content and assists on special editorial projects.

Jane has been an avid writer and editor for digital publications like The Odyssey Online and Trill! Magazine. She has covered an array of topics in beauty, fashion, politics, lifestyle, and continues to create content that thoughtfully resonates with readers. 

She is a lucky owner to an energetic Goldendoodle puppy named Pepper who she adopted in October 2021. She strives to continue learning more about dogs and share her expertise with readers through her own experiences and knowledge. 

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Jamie Abarca
Editorial Project Manager
Jamie Abarca, Editorial Project Manager for The Spruce Pets

Jamie is the Editorial Project Manager for The Spruce Pets, The Spruce, The Spruce Crafts, and MyDomaine. Jamie is an organization pro, having worked in higher education for seven years.

Before joining The Spruce Pets team, Jamie worked as a consultant with individuals and nonprofit organizations. Her work consisted of helping immigrants and first-generation high school students pursue higher education. As a multilingual writer and translator, she continues to aid underserved communities. At The Spruce Pets, Jamie manage's our Diversity and Anti-Bias initiatives, as well as works to help make sure all of our content is accurate through Fact Checking.

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Emma Glubiak
Senior Social Media Editor
Emma Glubiak, Senior Social Media Editor for The Spruce Pets

Emma is the Senior Social Editor for The Spruce family of brands, including The Spruce, The Spruce Pets, and The Spruce Crafts. She curates home and lifestyle content across Facebook, Instagram, TikTok, Pinterest, and more. Prior to The Spruce she managed social media at Apartment Therapy, where she led their organic social initiatives and ran their social advertising campaigns. In addition to her work for Apartment Therapy, she has also written for PureWow, Spoon University, The Kitchn, and PUNCH. 

She has 4+ years of experience in audience development and social media. She studied at Lafayette College and has a degree in International Affairs.

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Jalesa Campbell
Associate Social Media Editor
Jalesa Campbell

Jalesa Campbell is an Associate Social Media Editor for The Spruce and MyDomaine. She curates home and lifestyle content across Pinterest, Facebook, Instagram, and TikTok. Prior to joining Dotdash, Jalesa covered home security and safety-related topics as a writer for Safety.com.

She has 5+ years of experience creating digital content across several industries. She holds an M.A. in Communication from Queens University of Charlotte and a B.A. in English from Claflin University.

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Candace Madonna
Visual Editor
Candace Madonna, Visual Editor of The Spruce Pets

Candace is the Visual Editor for The Spruce Pets, The Spruce, and The Spruce Crafts. She joined the team in June 2019.

Candace is a photographer and photo art director with over six years of experience in the visual world. As Visual Editor, Candace manages a community of freelance photographers who contribute beautiful, original, and on-brand imagery to aid in The Spruce's aesthetic vision and storytelling. Candace oversees and contributes to the creation of all brand visuals, including illustrations and product branding.

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Margot Cavin
Photo Producer
Margot Cavin, Photo Producer for The Spruce Pets

​Margot is the photo producer for The Spruce Pets, The Spruce, and The Spruce Crafts. She spearheads photo shoots and the crafting of new original photography on all of The Spruce Pets. Many shoots require a larger team of freelancers, but with her background as a photographer, she often is behind the camera.

Before joining The Spruce, Margot worked as a freelance still life photographer for 12 years. She’s worked on campaigns with numerous brands such as Ralph Lauren, Club Monaco, Zoya, Garanimals, and HelloFresh, to name a few. While working as a freelance photographer, Margot received experience in art directing, producing, and styling on top of her role as photographer.

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Contact Us

Thanks for dropping by! Whether you have a comment or suggestion to share, we look forward to hearing from you. For more general feedback, feel free to reach out by emailing contact@thesprucepets.com as well.

For press inquiries, email us at press@thespruce.com.

If you would rather call us or send us a letter, you can reach us at 28 Liberty Street, 7th Floor, New York, NY 10005, 212-204-4000.

Write for Us

We’re always looking for experienced, qualified online freelance writers who share in our mission to provide practical, real-life tips and inspiration to help you create your best home.

Please note that we do not accept unsolicited guest-authored articles, blogs, infographics, or posts. Email us at contact@thesprucepets.com with the Subject Line: “Writing for The Spruce Pets”

Work With Us

Join our crew of top-notch editors, designers, programmers, and others as we continue to make a difference everyday in the lives of our readers.

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Advertise With Us

The Spruce Pets offers the highest value to advertisers through a combination of scale, credibility, and intent. Interested in advertising with us? Email us at sales@thesprucepets.com or check out our media kit to learn more.

View our media kit

About Dotdash Meredith

Dotdash Meredith is the largest digital and print publisher in America. From mobile to magazines, nearly 200 million people trust us to help them make decisions, take action, and find inspiration. Dotdash Meredith's over 50 iconic brands include PEOPLE, Better Homes & Gardens, Verywell, FOOD & WINE, The Spruce, Allrecipes, Byrdie, REAL SIMPLE, Investopedia, Southern Living and more.

Dotdash Meredith Press

Read about Dotdash Meredith and our family of brands in the news.

Our Senior Management Team

To learn more about our Senior Management Team, visit the Dotdash Meredith corporate site.