The ball python is a good snake for a beginning snake owner. They typically grow to be up to five feet long, they are not as large as many of the other constricting snakes that are kept as pets, they are quite docile, and they are easy to handle.
Scientific Name: Python regius
Common Name: Ball python
Adult Size: 4-5 feet
Life Expectancy: Typically 20 to 30 years, but 50 or more is possible
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Behavior and Temperament of Ball Pythons
Ball pythons are so named because, when threatened, they roll themselves into a tight ball, tucking their head inside their coils. Young ball pythons grow about a foot a year for three years. They can live for 20-30 years with proper care, and it's possible for them to live for decades longer.
Wild-caught snakes tend to be very stressed from capture and transport and can harbor a large parasite load. Captive-bred snakes tend to be more expensive, but they are readily available.
Housing Ball Pythons
Ball pythons are not terribly active snakes, so a smaller enclosure is fine (use a 20-gallon tank for younger snakes and a 30-gallon tank for an adult). They are, however, adept escape artists, so a securely fitted top is absolutely necessary.
You have many options for a substrate for your snake including shredded bark, newsprint, and Astroturf. Astroturf is probably the easiest because you can cut a few pieces to fit the cage and simply replace the dirty pieces as necessary. The soiled pieces can be soaked in a solution of one gallon of water with 2 tablespoons of bleach, rinsed well, dried, and then used again.
Provide sturdy branches and a dark hiding place for your snake. They like to feel securely enclosed, so it should be just large enough to accommodate the snake.
The temperature in your ball python's cage should range from 75-80 degrees Fahrenheit on the cool side with a basking spot maintained at 88-92 degrees F. Nighttime temperatures can fall to around 75 degrees F.
An under-the-tank heating pad designed for reptiles works well but can make it difficult to monitor the temperature. An incandescent heat bulb or ceramic heating element can be used to achieve the basking temperatures.
Never use hot rocks with pet reptiles, and make sure the bulb or heat element is screened off to prevent contact with the snake otherwise burns may result. Use multiple thermometers to monitor the temperatures in the cage: one at the bottom of the cage and one at the basking spot.
Provide a dish large enough for your snake to soak in. Soaking is particularly helpful during sheds. Some owners like to provide a covered dish (e.g. plastic storage container) with a hole in the lid to provide security for the snake, so it will soak longer if necessary.
Another alternative is to provide a humidity retreat, which similarly uses a covered container with an access hole lined with damp sphagnum moss or paper towels to provide moisture (a water dish is still provided outside the retreat).
Food and Water
Ball pythons can be fed exclusively mice or small to medium-sized rats (as appropriate for the size of the snake) and only need to be fed every week or two. Young snakes should be fed fuzzy mice every 5 to 7 days, while older snakes should be fed increasingly larger prey and can go a little longer, up to two weeks. Use pre-killed prey since live mice can injure a snake. Dangling the prey in front of the snake with forceps usually gets the snake interested in it.
Moving the snake out of its cage into a separate enclosure for feeding is a good idea and will help in the taming process. The snake will associate eating with the other enclosure and is less likely to confuse your hand for prey when you put your hand into the cage. This will make it easier to reach into the cage to get the ball python out for handling.
Common Health Problems
If you already have a constricting snake at home, any new python (or boa) should be quarantined due to the risk of inclusion body disease. Experts vary on the length of recommended quarantine time, but 3 to 6 months is not extreme. In addition, a vet check is in order, especially for internal (take a recent stool sample) and external parasites.
Even captive-bred ball pythons sometimes refuse to eat, fasting for a couple of months. As long as body weight and condition are maintained, this is not problematic.
If your snake stops eating, carefully examine the husbandry, handling, health, and environment of the snake to make sure stress isn't the culprit. Consult a knowledgeable vet or experienced keeper for help if the fast is prolonged or causes weight loss over 10%.
If necessary, some tricks to entice a python to eat include dipping the prey in chicken broth, trying different colors of mice, exposing the brain of the prey before feeding it, feeding at night, and covering the cage with towels after offering a mouse.
You may even want to try feeding a hamster, although this may make your snake more likely to refuse mice if it develops a preference.
Choosing a Ball Python
When you are ready to get your ball python, look for a young, captive-bred snake (you may have to find a breeder for this). Choose a snake that has a well-rounded body, clean eyes and vent, and that shows no signs of respiratory problems (wheezing, bubbles around nostrils).
Look for one that is alert and curious and gently grips your hand/arms when handled. It may be skittish but should calm after handling for a bit. It is not a bad idea to ask for a feeding demonstration to be sure the snake readily takes a meal.
Parasitic Diseases Of Reptiles. Merck Veterinary Manual.
- Hollandt T, Baur M, Wöhr A-C. Animal-appropriate housing of ball pythons (Python regius)—Behavior-based evaluation of two types of housing systems. Tomaszewska E, ed. PLoS ONE. 2021;16(5):e0247082 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0247082