Some reptiles like to burrow, others prefer to bask, and some need a humid environment. Different kinds of bedding offer different risks and benefits. Depending on what kind of reptile you care for you may need to take some of these things into consideration. Here are some common options for reptile bedding or substrate.
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Bedding made from wood comes in different forms, sizes, types of wood, and even colors. The most common types of wood used to make bedding are pine, cedar, Douglas fir, aspen, and cypress. It can come in the form of shavings, pellets, and chips.
Wood beddings are best for arboreal species of reptiles, or ones that don't spend much of their time on the ground. Some concerns with shavings, pellets and bark chips are the lack of absorbency and odor control, and that shavings can hurt the feet of some reptiles or even cause splinters.
Some companies dye their shavings different colors or infuse them with chlorophyll. Besides staining the reptile the color of the bedding, these don't do much for odor control or absorbency.
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Recycled Paper Bedding
This bedding isn't always marketed to the reptile community, but many owners like the absorbency the small pellets and soft pieces of recycled paper have. It isn't a natural type of bedding for reptiles, but some reptiles like to burrow under the soft paper pieces.
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The stringy fiber pieces, also known as the husk, on a coconut are a different choice for reptile bedding. They are often sold in expandable chunks or bricks and are popular among owners of reptiles requiring high humidity. The gardening industry also sells a variety, but it often has fertilizer in it that can harm reptiles.
Odor control and absorbency are good and burrowing reptiles especially enjoy coconut fiber.
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Alfalfa meal is ground up alfalfa hay which is then compressed into small cylindrical pellets.
These pellets are quite absorbent, and some manufacturers add reptile-safe germ control agents to the meal. The pellets are also biodegradable, help with odor control and should be fairly safe if accidentally ingested.Continue to 5 of 10 below.
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Paper Towels and Newspapers
These are possibly the most inexpensive types of bedding. Some owners shred the towels and newspapers to create a "fluffier" type of bedding, which is good for burrowers, and others just put sheets down on the bottom of the enclosure.
Paper towels and newspapers are absorbent, but do nothing for odor control. Owners like the availability, cost, ease of clean-ups, and lack of possible ingestion. It is obviously very unnatural for any reptile but otherwise presents no large problems.
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Colors and textures vary, but most carpets are washable. This is the main draw to reptile carpeting. Some stores will cut carpets to match tank sizes, others are pre-cut and sold for specific enclosure measurements.
There is no risk of ingestion, and being able to wash them keeps the enclosure sanitary.
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Vermiculite is a mineral that is used in many different ways. For reptile bedding, vermiculite is processed by heating it. When water is added, it separates into many layers and expands into long worm-like pieces.
This type of bedding is great for high humidity reptiles and burrowers. It is an alternative to peat moss.
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There are a few different moss varieties used as bedding for reptiles, all of which are good for those preferring high humidity or burrowing. This is a natural substrate like sand.Continue to 9 of 10 below.
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Ground Walnut Shells
As the name says, this substrate is made of finely ground walnut shells. It can cause impaction, does not hold water, and has no odor control. It is easily scooped like cat litter to dispose of waste and does not clump like sand bedding.
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Play sand, vitamin-infused sand, and digestible calcium sand are available to reptile owners. Possible ingestion is the biggest concern for reptiles who eat where they live. Digestible calcium sand is okay to digest if it is in small amounts, but obviously, if a reptile were to get a mouth full of any of these types of sand, impaction would occur.
Sand that is dyed will usually stain the reptile, but the dye will not harm their skin.
Owners like sand for desert species of reptiles. It is a natural substrate, and if ingestion is not a concern, the sand does not present any other major problems.
Sand does clump when wet, sticks to wet feet, and does not help with odor control, but some reptiles, like the sand boa, need sand to burrow.