Black spot disease is caused by a parasite that commonly infests Tangs and other Surgeonfishes, but can be contracted by other fish species and mollusks (shellfish) as well. Black spot disease is also referred to as tang disease or black ich, although ich is actually caused by a different type of parasite. The black spots on the fish are tiny Paravortex turbellaria flatworms (Phylum Platyhelminthes) embedded in the skin of the fish. Black spot parasites are much less dangerous and life-threatening, as well as easier to treat, compared to protozoan parasites such as Oodinium, Cryptocaryon (ich disease) and Brooklynella. Nonetheless, it is a problem where fish infected with these parasites need to be treated.
The Life Cycle of These Worms
- The reproducing cyst of the worm settles in the substrate of the aquarium. After hatching, the juvenile (200 micrometers long by 50 μm wide) Paravortex worms can swim freely and leave the substrate seeking out a host fish. Once they find a suitable host fish, the juvenile turbellaria burrow into the epithelium of the fish's skin or gills and begin feeding on the fish's cell fluids.
- After feeding on a host fish for about six days, the mature turbellaria (now 2500 μm long and 750 μm wide) falls off the fish and descends into the substrate, where it forms a cyst.
- About five days later, the encysted worm ruptures and releases a new population of about 160 young worms, which can immediately swim about and attach to a new host. The cycle starts again but in larger numbers.
Gravel vacuuming the aquarium may help reduce encysted worms in the substrate during an outbreak. Affected fish should be placed in a quarantine tank to prevent increasing the parasite population in the main aquarium. Give all infested fish a freshwater dip, followed by a formalin bath and continue treatment in a quarantine tank. Praziquantel has been used with some success to treat affected fish in quarantine tanks.
Reinfection will occur no matter how effectively the fish have been treated if these parasitic turbellarian worms are not eradicated from the main aquarium. They can survive for several months without a host. Here are some suggestions to help prevent reinfection.
- Leaving the main aquarium devoid of all fish for several months is a cure that some aquarists recommend, however, this is not always possible or desirable. The theory here is that, without a host fish, the life cycle chain will be broken and the turbellaria will not be able to reproduce and you will just be waiting for the turbellaria to die from lack of nutrition.
- Young worms live in the substrate and feed on detritus and organic debris until they go in search of a fish host. Siphoning up the excess organic matter that builds up on the bottom of the aquarium can help to control their numbers.
- For fish-only tanks, or marine aquariums containing no freshwater-sensitive invertebrates, hyposalinity (decreased salt concentration) can be applied. When using hyposalinity (osmotic shock), stirring the substrate occasionally will help to release the higher salinity water trapped in the substrate, exposing the flatworms to the lower salinity water in the aquarium.
Natural Predators of Turbellaria Worms
Turbellaria worms are after all, marine flatworms. There are some fish that will consume them when given the opportunity. These fish include six-line wrasses (Pseudocheilinus hexataenia), yellow wrasses (Halichoeres chrysus), striped mandarinfish (Synchiropus splendidus), spotted mandarinfish (Synchiropus picturatus) and no doubt, any other Dragonet.
If you suspect your pet is sick, call your aquatic veterinarian immediately. For health-related questions, always consult your veterinarian, as they have examined your pet, know the pet's health history, and can make the best recommendations for your pet.
Black Spot (Black Grub). Michigan Department of Natural Resources.
Francis-Floyd, Ruth; Yanong, Roy and Pouder, Deborah. Ichthyophthirius Multifiliis (White Spot) Infections in Fish. University of Florida Extension. 2016.
Reed, Peggy and Francis-Floyd, Ruth. Amyloodinium Infections of Marine Fish. University of Florida Extension.
Yanong, Roy P. E. Cryptocaryon irritans Infections (Marine White Spot Disease) in Fish. University of Florida Extension.
Klinger, RuthEllen and Floyd, Ruth Francis. Introduction to Freshwater Fish Parasites. University of Florida Extension. 2013.