Breeding the Jewel Fish, Ruby Cichlid, Hemichromis bimaculatus

Want an Aquarium Breeding Project; Jewel Fish are Best Parents Around

  • 01 of 04

    Description of Jewel Fish and Sexing:

    Jewel Fish are Beautiful, but Terrorize an Aquarium at Breeding Time The Hemichromis bimaculatus or Jewel fish, also known as the Ruby Cichlid, one of the aquarium staples for the cichlid end of the tropical fish hobby.

    The Jewel Fish has several similar species, all are very beautiful but vicious members of the cichlid family, a species that has been adapted to aquarium life for well over 100 years!  This species will attack its own species as well as any other fish, no matter the size when in breeding season and fry rearing duration.  Therefore, for purposes of breeding, the Jewel Fish should be kept in a separate aquarium, set up and maintained for just the needs of this species.  As a first or second...MORE breeding experience, this fish is worth the trouble, it is easy to breed, and the mated pair do all the work of fry rearing!

    When young or not excited, the Jewel Fish is a dull olive color overall, with three black dots showing up on it’s sides.  However, when it wears courting colors the Jewel Fish is absolutely beautiful.  In breeding season, the head and belly turn a fiery red; the scales on the flanks and gill-plates sparkle like blue-green jewels – hence the popular name.  All the fins are edged with brilliant red, and shine profusely with blue-green spots.  The black dot in the center of the body disappears entirely when the pair of Jewel fish are ready to lay eggs.

    To tell the difference in the sexes, look for a plump female, when in breeding condition the female will be full of roe (eggs).  The male is even more jeweled than the female, particularly in the regions of the gill-plated, the flanks, and the tail fin.  His is not necessarily the brightest red however; indeed, at times the female is so brilliant that the uninitiated might consider her to be the male.

  • 02 of 04

    Basic Behavior of the Jewel Fish in Breeding Seasion

    Jewel Fish guarding its eggs

    Hemichromis or the Jewel Fish, is an open water spawner, which means it looks for a place to dig holes for spawning activities.  Once a male and female have bonded, they form a definite partnership, and will kill all others of their species if given the chance during the breeding and fry raising process. 

    Brood-caring activities of both sexes are strongly followed, unlike other cichlid species from Africa, the duties of egg care and fry raising are split evenly between 2 very attentative...MORE parents.  The young fish are cared for even when they are well able to go out on their own.  Sometimes the family will stay together until the fry are almost ready to reach sexual maturity.

    A cichlid lover will get great pleasure out of the Jewel Fish, especially when a well-matched pair devotes themselves unreservedly to caring for their brood.  For months, they may be observed guiding their offspring around the tank, showing off their splendid coloring during the entire process. 

    Feeding Breeding Pair:  Care of this species is not difficult, they are not choosy about food, but must be provided ample live and frozen, protein rich foods before and during the spawning and fry raising period.

    Feeding the Fry:  The Jewel Fish fry are able to devour baby brine shrimp and finely ground fry food at hatching effortlessly.  The parents will make sure they are safe and well fed by leading the brood to wherever the food is provided.  They are large fry, and the parent fish will herd the family around the tank in search of infusoria, micro algae and edible tidbits around the bottom of the aquarium.  It is for this reason that for best results, the breeding aquarium should not be a bare tank with “new” water; it should be well established with thriving live plants, to insure ample food supply for the fry in their first 3 weeks of life.

    After 3 weeks, the fry will greedily accept anything they are offered, but for fastest growth, continue feeding at least some baby brine shrimp for the protein.  Also, frozen baby brine shrimp, even though they quickly sink to the bottom, will be foraged for and eaten by the fry.  A full belly is a healthy belly with any growing fry cichlid, so feeding should be often.

    Water Conditions:  The Jewel fish is not particularly choosey about Ph or hardness within reason, since they are flood plain dwellers in nature.  However, these fish must be provided an efficient filter system, to ensure clear water at all times.  It is also important to maintain a steady temperature from 78F to 81F for breeding to take place.

  • 03 of 04

    Breeding Statistics of the Jewel Fish or Ruby Cichlid

    jewel fish male and female

    Tank size:  Recommended 30” X 15” X 15”  This may seem like an overkill, but with up to 200 surviving fry, the space is needed for fry rearing.


    Hardness:  120 – 150 p.p.m.  but they are relatively forgiving species so close is good enough.


    Temperature:  79F – 82F


    Spawning Media:  This species prefers a terracotta flower pot, turned on its side and aged in an established aquarium for at least a week.  The size of the opening should be from 3” to no more than 5”. They seem to like the illusion of...MORE a cave.

    Breeding Method:  Standard for medium cichlids, mating ritual (looks like fighting) then the pair will be close to each other a few from hours to days, finally laying eggs and fertilizing them side by side, egg by egg.


    Egg Size and Number:  250 – 300 from a mature adult, yellowish in color and about ½ the size of a bb.


    Hatching Time:  The eggs hatch in 3 days, no intervention is required or suggested.  The parents will constantly fan the eggs and pick at them to remove all fungus and dead eggs.  There is no danger that the parents will eat the eggs with this species.


    Fry Wiggling:  For an additional 3-4 days the fry will be hidden by the parents, probably still within the “safety of the flowerpot.  They are helpless during this time, but protected by the parents with their very lives.


    Free-Swimming:  Within the 7th day, you should see the proud parents showing off their newly swimming fry cloud, making short ventures, herding them to find micro food around the bottom of the aquarium.


    Food First Week Day 8 – 14:  Baby brine shrimp, micro worms, finely ground fry food very rich in protein.


    Food Second Week Day 14-21:  Micro worms, fine dried foods


    Food Beyond 21 Days:  The fry will constantly be hungry, foraging in the cloud with the parents careful and watchful eyes, but at this point they can eat high quality, high protein flake food, ground in your fingers.  They will eat just about anything as long as you keep the flow of baby brine shrimp and daphnia coming, they will grow very quickly.


    Separate from Parents:  1) if the parents lose color and ignore the fry, remove them or the parents of the fry may soon become food.  2) any time after 3 weeks if you want the parents to breed again, recondition the pair and they will probably breed again in about 2 weeks after removal.  3) when the fry begin to take on the look of the parents in miniature, best they be separated to several tanks if you want to raise all the fry to maturity.

  • 04 of 04

    The Full and Amazing Breeding Process of the Jewel Fish

    Jewel Fish Cichlid Parenting

    It is strange that such a nasty, pugnacious cichlid species as the Jewel Fish is one of the most docile and devoted of all freshwater fish parents.  If it were not for their own mean disposition, this brightly colored fish would certainly be one of the most popular of the cichlid group and a staple in almost every community aquarium, right alongside the Angel Fish.

    Once you have a mated pair, getting them to breed will never be a problem, the problem is what to do with the fry.  The Jewel Fish is...MORE the one cichlid that everyone admires for its beauty, but no one wants in a community aquarium.  The parents will not eat their fry like so many other cichlids, and will go on making more and more.  Give this some thought before you begain, but the rewards of breeding this fish are unending.

    Especially, in a classroom situation, the Jewel Fish is ideal, the husbandry displayed will fill many class discussions about life in general.

    For the full story of just what goes on from courtship to mating all the way through to the parents setting the fry out on their own: CLICK HERE


    For more information check out our Twitter, Facebook and Pinterest and feel free to ask questions by clicking here.  If you encounter problems, come back to and I will do my best to help your aquarium thrive.  I love fish and I want you to grow with the hobby.  I want you to have all the information at your fingertips to create a happy healthy aquarium community for you and your family.

There are two variations available in pet stores, the Jewel Fish is usually the original as it is in nature, and the Hemichromis lifalili or Ruby Cichlid that is usually a highbred variety much redder and somewhat more docile due to breeding out the aggressive nature of the natural variety. You should still not let the “Ruby” variety anywhere near your Community Aquarium, no matter what that sales person says, any variety of Jewel Fish or Ruby Cichlid will eat your Neons and rip into your Angel’s fins without a doubt!