A horse that pulls, runs away, or goes faster than you'd like to go is not fun to ride, and a runaway horse can be dangerous. Controlling a strong horse may not be as simple as riding in a more severe bit; all horses are strong enough to pull a person out of the saddle.
Several factors may contribute to a horse pulling at the reins: poor saddle fit, lack of outdoor time, dental problems, fear or lack of confidence, lack of training, a bit that is too severe and causes pain or a rider's heavy hands. Figuring out why your horse is pulling away from you will help you determine the best way to fix the problem.
Determine the Horse's Reason for Pulling
Once you have discovered why your horse is hard to control, you are on your way to a solution. You won't be able to force a horse to do what you want if it is feeling pain. Look after saddle fit, dental work, chiropractic issues, or hoof issues first. It's not fair or reasonable to expect a horse to be obedient if it is body sore from any of these things.
Keep your horse as 'naturally' as possible. If it can't be turned out (allowed outside) all of the time, be sure that it has ample time to be outdoors, eating in a head down position, and time to roll, run, and buck when it is feeling energetic. If its diet is high in concentrates, cut back while still providing good quality hay or pasture grass.
Sometimes we develop bad habits and inadvertently teach our horses less than desirable behavior. These can range from poor seat position and heavy hands to mistimed cues and other habits that can confuse and frustrate a horse. Consider taking a few lessons to brush up on your riding skills.
Another thing to consider as your ride is if you are giving your horse a chance to anticipate what will come next. Do you ride quietly through forest trails and then kick your horse into a gallop when you come to an open field? Your horse may become excitable, anticipating what's ahead.
It won't be a mistake to take your horse back to the basics. Even if your goal is to trail ride, a strong, hard to control horse will benefit from schooling. The aim is to develop greater obedience. Ride circles, serpentines, loops and other patterns at varying gaits. Keep your horse's mind busy and focused on what you are asking it to do.
You may want to start from the very beginning, lunging for obedience, and teaching voice aids. It's also essential to anticipate where a problem might occur and take steps to avoid it before it happens. If you're not sure how to go about this a coach or trainer can help you out.
Problems and Proofing the Behavior
Don't try to win a battle of strength with your horse; you'll always lose. If you feel your horse pulling the reins, instead of trying to pull back, push the horse forward using your seat and legs. This will prevent the horse from rooting (putting its head down to pull away) and may catch it off guard enough that it stops pulling on the reins.
At this point, you should be able to gather the reins and regain control of the horse.
Whether your horse is habitually strong or not, at some point you may be faced with a horse that bolts and runs away. In an extreme situation where a bolt could take you into a very dangerous spot, you may have no choice but to protect yourself and do an emergency dismount. Thankfully, situations like this are extremely rare.
If you don't keep a proper grip on the reins they become too long, and the horse will be able to pull away more easily. Remember that your horse's head moves slightly with each step, so you should keep your arms at your sides, and allow them to move with the natural motion of the horse's gait.
You need to find the balance between giving your horse enough rein and gripping too tightly so it becomes confused (and may rear backward).