All power aquarium filters need to be cleaned occasionally, and this holds true for the popular hang-on-back (HOB) style. This filter style, which simply hangs on the back wall of your aquarium, is popular exactly for this reason—it is easy to maintain and easy to clean.
How Power Filters Work
Power filters draw water up a lift tube and into a filter chamber; from there, the water is pushed through a series of filter media, providing biological, chemical, and/or mechanical filtration.
After the water goes through the filter media, it flows over an overflow and back into the tank. The water moves with the aid of a water pump that pulls it through the lift tube—or the water may be transported by air bubbles that bring water into the lift tube and then the filter box.
A HOB filter cartridge needs to be cleaned only if the flow rate diminishes or if the filter backs up back into the tank via the overflow outlet. Don't let more than a month pass between cleaning and maintaining your filter since it will build up significant detritus which will being to decay and may cause nitrates to climb quickly. Cleaning the filter only takes about 20 minutes and it's good insurance for keeping your tank healthy.
How Clean a Hanging Power Filter
- Have fresh filtration media, a small pitcher, and a bucket on hand before starting.
- Place about 2 quarts of tank water in a small pitcher and set it aside.
- Turn the filter off and unplug the cord from the electrical outlet.
- Gently lift the filter off of the aquarium and place in a clean bucket.
- Remove the sponge insert. If it is disposable, discard it and skip to step nine.
- If the sponge insert is refillable, discard the filtration media inside it.
- Place part of the tank water in a small bowl and gently rinse the sponge in it.
- Refill the washed sponge insert with fresh media, close and set aside.
- Remove any algae or lime deposits from the filter housing, and rinse thoroughly with fresh water.
- Rinse the new or refilled sponge insert using the pitcher of tank water.
- Place the rinsed sponge insert in the filter housing.
- Hang the filter back on the aquarium.
- Using a small cup, partially fill the filter with tank water, then replace the cover.
- Plug the filter in and turn it on. You now have a clean filter.
Power Filter Cleaning Tips
- If you use refillable inserts, be sure to seal the container of filtration media tightly after each use.
- It's a myth that you should never replace the filter insert. Dirty filters that can no longer be cleaned thoroughly are unhealthy.
- If your "bio bag" filters or filter cartridges contain carbon, you can dump the carbon out after a few weeks because it's lost its effectiveness at that point. Doing so will also improve the flow rate through the empty cartridge.
- In addition to the maintenance needed for the filter media, you also have to periodically clean the pump on your power filter and the lift tubes. You can accomplish this easily with aquarium tube cleaning kits available at stores.