01 of 11
Plants Toxic to Horses and Ponies - Deadly Nightshade
Identify Common Weeds, Trees and Plants that are Poisonous to Horses and Ponies
These common weeds, trees, plants and shrubs are toxic to horses and ponies. Learn to identify these plants in your pastures and yards.
Deadly nightshade likes sandy soil and thrives even in dry conditions. I've become very familiar with this plant's vining habits on my own property. It has a white star shaped flower and the fruit looks like a large black current. All parts of this plant are toxic to humans and... pets.
The leaves are dark green and smooth textured somewhat similar to that of a tomato plant. (It is in the same family as tomato, potato and pepper plants which is why you don't want your neighbor pitching his garden scraps over your fence.) Nightshades can be difficult to eradicate.
Horses are unlikely to eat nightshade or any other toxic plant unless there is no other feed available or it is baled into the hay and eaten accidentally. Signs of nightshade poisoning may include:
- colic like symptoms
- loss of muscle control
- dilated pupils
Also known as Eastern Black Nightshade.
Resource: Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Poisoning of Horses by Plants, Penny Lawlis - Animal Care Inspector/OMAFRA.
If you suspect poisoning from any plant or substance call your veterinarian immediately.Continue to 2 of 11 below.
02 of 11
Plants Toxic to Horses - Buttercups
These buttercups were found on the margin of a marshy area in a pasture. The flowers are yellow and cup shaped with sharply lobed leaves off of a thin stem. The grass around them was well grazed. Horses will avoid eating buttercups if there is more desirable feed available. After a hard frost or dried in hay buttercups are no longer toxic.
Buttercups may cause:
- irritation of the mouth area
- colic like symptoms
If you suspect poisoning from any plant or substance call your veterinarian immediately.Continue to 3 of 11 below.
03 of 11
Plants Toxic to Horses - Bracken Fern
It may be growing in your garden, along your pasture edges or trails.
Bracken fern is very common, growing along roadsides, in fields, in light bush areas and even gardens. In the spring 'fiddleheads' unfurl into triangular fronds up to 3ft (1m) high. I've had horses snatch a mouthful of fern while riding and they seem to find it palatable. Bracken fern dried and baled into hay is still toxic. If a horse eats a large quantity of this fern the toxins can cause a Vitamin B1 deficiency.
Sy...mptoms of bracken fern poisoning may include:
- loss of coordination
- depressed heart rate
- weight loss
- eventual death if not promptly treated
If you suspect poisoning from any plant or substance call your veterinarian immediately.Continue to 4 of 11 below.
04 of 11
Plants Toxic to Horses- Horse Tails
The soil around my old property is largely sand and gravel. It drains quickly, making it the perfect for this variety of horsetail. Other varieties grow in more marshy areas. If the plant is dried into hay the toxin may have a greater effect than in the fresh plant. The toxin in this plant destroys the Vitamin B in the horse's blood.
Symptoms of Horsetail poisoning are:
- arrhythmia of increased pulse
Resources: Indiana Plants Poisonous to Livestock and Pets... Cooperative Extension Service, Purdue University
OMAFRA: Poisoning of Horses by Plants, Author: Penny Lawlis - Animal Care Inspector/OMAFRAContinue to 5 of 11 below.
05 of 11
Plants Toxic to Horses - Lamb's Quarters (or Pigweed)
In some areas this plant is called pigweed or lamb's quarters. The plant I've photographed here is what we call lamb's quarters. It has smooth, light colored leaves and a woody red stem. The 'flower' looks rather like small pale green cauliflower cluster.
A horse would have to eat a large quantity of lamb's quarters for the toxin to take effect. Unless there is no other feed available it is unlikely a horse will eat this plant.
If a horse consumes a large quantity of... lamb's quarters symptoms may include:
- lack coordination
- respiratory distress
- kidney failure
Resources: Indiana Plants Poisonous to Livestock and Pets Cooperative Extension Service, Purdue University
If you suspect poisoning from any plant or substance call your veterinarian immediately.Continue to 6 of 11 below.
06 of 11
Lily of the Valley
It's a lovely spring blooming perennial bulb, but it's deadly to horses. Does this grow in your flower garden?
This common garden plant is toxic to humans and pets, including horses. Lily of the Valley is unlikely to be growing in a pasture. It could be accidentally ingested if someone were to throw garden clippings close to a fence line where curious horses might be able to reach. Garden and lawn clippings should be disposed of out of reach of horses.
If you suspect poisoning from any... plant or substance call your veterinarian immediately.Continue to 7 of 11 below.
07 of 11
Plants Toxic to Horses - Milkweed
Milkweed is a very common pasture plant. Elliptical shaped leave branch off of a central stem. When any part of the plant is torn it will ooze a white, sticky sap. The flowers grow in a ball shaped cluster and when in full bloom are a lavender color. The pods develop to about 3" and in fall split open to release brown seeds that float through the air on downy fibers. All parts of the plant are toxic. Living and dried plants (accidentally baled into hay) are toxic. Like most toxic plants... horses will avoid milkweed unless they have no other food source. Signs of milkweed poisoning are:
- loss of muscular control
- rapid and weak pulse
- respiratory paralysis
Milk weed poisoning is rarely fatal.
If you suspect poisoning from any plant or substance call your veterinarian immediately.Continue to 8 of 11 below.
08 of 11
Plants Toxic to Horses - Pigweed
Pigweed can be very toxic if eaten in large quantities. Horses are unlikely to eat this plant unless there is no other food available. This weed seems to grow everywhere--from pastures to vegetable gardens, roadsides to barnyards. It is still toxic if dried and baled into hay. Pigweed, and its relative lamb's quarters can cause kidney failure. Other symptoms of pigweed ingestion may include:
- respiratory distress
- lack of coordination
If you suspect poisoning from any plant or substance call your veterinarian immediately.Continue to 9 of 11 below.
09 of 11
Plants Toxic to Horses - Red Maple
I loved the red maples on our rural property for their brilliant fall color. But I was glad that the trees were situated too far away for curious ponies to get at them.
The bark of red maples is smooth and grayish. The twigs are reddish brown.
The fresh leaves are considered relatively safe, but wilted and fallen leaves can be toxic--but tasty, to horses. The toxins affect the red blood cells. Three pounds of ingested red maple leaves is considered lethal.
Leaves can remain toxic for several weeks... after they've fallen. Don't dispose of red maple leaves in manure piles or compost heaps that might be in reach of your horses. Red maple leaves can cause problems if baled into hay.
Red maples grow throughout eastern United States and Canada.
Symptoms of red maple poisoning are:
- dark brown urine
- rapid pulse
- increased respiration
Resource: Indiana Plants Poisonous to Livestock and Pets, Cooperative Extension Service, Purdue University Rebecca J. Goetz, writer, extension assistant Thomas N. Jordan, extension weed scientist John W. McCain, extension weed scientist Nancy Y. Su, assistant
If you suspect poisoning from any plant or substance call your veterinarian immediately.Continue to 10 of 11 below.
10 of 11
Plants Toxic to Horses - Red Oak
Before we bought our former property I very nearly passed it over because of the three large red oaks behind the house. The leaves of red oaks are toxic to horses. Thankfully they are far enough away from the paddocks that the horses can not reach them.
While I've had my horses snatch a mouthful of oak leaves while riding with no apparent harm, a large quantity can be dangerous.
Various varieties of oaks live throughout North America. Horses will eat the leaves if there is no other food... available. Water may be contaminated by fallen leaves. Acorns are also toxic if eaten in quantity.
Signs of oak poisoning are:
- colic symptoms
- darkened urine
If you suspect poisoning from any plant or substance call your veterinarian immediately.Continue to 11 of 11 below.
11 of 11
Plants Toxic to Horses - St. John's Wort
When I first moved to former home I noticed the lovely field of yellow flowers next door. From mid-July to mid-August St. John's Wort blooms in our dry sandy soil. If you crush the flowers between your fingers, it will leave a rusty reddish stain. Some people soak the flowers in a vegetable oil base to make what is believed to be a healing oil. I found out the hard way that it is not a good way to treat a sunburn on a horse's nose--it actually makes it worse. St. John's Wort causes... photo sensitivity--whether it is ingested or as an oil applied to the skin.
If you suspect poisoning from any plant or substance call your veterinarian immediately.