Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) is a serious disease that can affect dogs of all ages, sizes, and breeds. Spread through tick bites, this infection causes a variety of symptoms in dogs and is seen all over the country. Dog owners should be aware of how to not only recognize this disease but also how to prevent it.
What Is Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in Dogs?
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever is carried by a tick and passed onto people as well as dogs when they are bitten. When a tick feeds, the bacteria in their saliva travels to the bloodstream and reproduces in the cells of the blood vessels. This causes problems with blood flow because the blood vessels become inflamed and constricted. In humans, this infection may also be referred to as Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis but this name also includes infections of Rickettsia parkeri, Pacific Coast tick fever, and rickettsialpox.
Signs of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in Dogs
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever can be difficult to diagnose solely on symptoms. Signs of RMSF can vary greatly from vomiting to facial swelling and joint pain. An increase in body temperature, bleeding from the nose or mouth, coughing, and even abdominal pain can all be symptoms of RMSF. Oftentimes dogs with this tick-borne illness also report muscle pain, lethargy, and swollen legs but not every dog has every symptom. Because of this variety of symptoms, it makes it hard to differentiate signs of RMSF from several other types of infections or ailments.
Causes of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in Dogs
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever is a rickettsiosis or intracellular bacterial infection caused by the bacteria Rickettsia rickettsii. It is spread through the bites of several different kinds of ticks. The American dog tick (Dermacentor variablis) is the most common cause of this infection but the Rocky Mountain wood tick (Dermacentor andersoni) and the brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) can also transmit this disease.
Diagnosing Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in Dogs
A full physical examination is performed by a veterinarian after symptoms of RMSF are exhibited. If RMSF is suspected, blood work and potentially a urinalysis and X-rays will be recommended. Blood work will look at red and white blood cells, platelets, and organ function. A special two-part test called an Indirect Immunofluorescent Assay (IFA) may also be performed to look for antibodies to the bacteria.
If a dog has Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, the complete blood count (CBC) may show low levels of platelets and red blood cells, abnormal white blood cell levels depending on the stage of the infection. The organ function tests may show abnormal protein levels along with abnormal electrolyte, liver, or kidney values.
Treatment of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in Dogs
Since Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever is caused by a bacteria, antibiotics are used to treat this disease. Typically a three-week course of antibiotics is used to fight this serious infection. Probiotics may also be recommended to help maintain the good bacteria in the gut as well as the immune system during, and for at least one week after, the antibiotics. In some cases, steroids may be needed as the infection can trigger an overactive immune response that will start to attack the dog's own body. If left untreated it can be deadly. In severe cases, a blood transfusion may be needed.
How to Prevent Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in Dogs
Ticks are the carriers of this disease so to prevent a dog from contracting RMSF the best things a dog owner can do are keep their dog away from tick-infested areas and use a tick preventative, and perform regular tick checks when dogs come in from spending time outside. Wooded areas and tall grasses are likely to house ticks so they are best avoided and tick preventative pills and collars will kill ticks that can pass on RMSF to a dog.
If a tick is found on a dog, it should be removed as soon as possible to prevent transmission of the disease. The entire tick, including the head, will need to be carefully pulled out.
Is Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Contagious to Humans?
If a dog contracts Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever from a tick, the dog cannot pass it on to a person. But if a tick that is carrying this bacterial infection bites a person, a person can be infected with RMSF just like a dog.
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (Tick Fever) in Dogs. Merck Veterinary Manual.