There are a wide variety of diseases saltwater fish are susceptible to. Since fish essentially live in a toilet and are constantly exposed to various pathogens, a strong immune system is critical to good overall fish health.
Support your fish's immune function by providing an excellent environment, taking into consideration their spatial requirements, desired territory or hiding spots, and preferred tankmates.
Feed a high-quality diet specific to the metabolism and digestion of your fish and be sure to replace it regularly. Test your water chemistry on a consistent basis and make sure maintenance takes top priority.
Eliminating stress from your fishes' environment goes a long way in ensuring their overall health and welfare.
Depending on the disease process, the clinical signs of a sick fish may be fairly obvious or more subtle. Physical signs of disease, such as bumps, patches, scale loss, fin rips or changes in color are easy to spot for even novice hobbyists. Behavioral changes, such as changes in appetite, incorrect body positioning, and buoyancy disorders are harder to spot.
The best method of spotting disease in your fish is to check them daily at the same time and be sure to watch every fish closely. Once you know their normal behavior and patterns, it is easier to pick up on any small changes.
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Parasites most commonly enter a system when new fish are added without proper quarantine. The stress of transport and adjustment to a new system causes decreased immune function, allowing any parasites riding along to easily replicate and spread.
Common clinical signs of parasites in saltwater fish include external spots, bruises or scale loss from flashing, increased lethargy and respiratory effort or sudden death.
Here are the most common saltwater fish parasites:
- White spot disease/Marine Ich (Cryptocaryon irritans)
- Clownfish disease (Brooklynella)
- Marine Velvet Disease (Amlyoodinium ocellatum)
- Neobenedenia sp.
Depending on the parasite present, your treatment options may vary. Contact your aquatic veterinarian in order to correctly identify and prescribe the best treatment available. Many parasite treatments are not coral or invertebrate-safe, so you may need another holding tank to treat infested fish.
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There are numerous bacteria species present in your aquarium. A fish's immune system can keep most bacteria in check most of the time. If your fish is stressed out due to poor water quality, territory or space disputes or poor nutrition, their immune function will drop and they will be more likely to develop a secondary bacteria infection.
Common signs of bacterial disease in marine fish included lethargy, decreased appetite, ulcers, and sudden death. If you note any of these signs, be sure to test your water quality and evaluate your fish's diet.
Most of the time, if the primary stressor is identified and eliminated, your fish will not require any additional treatment. Severe infections may require treatment with antibiotics prescribed by your veterinarian.
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There are many viruses that can affect saltwater fish. The most commonly seen is lymphocystis, an iridovirus that also has a freshwater counterpart.
Clinical signs of lymphocystis include small white or light-colored nodules on your fishes' skin and fins. They may also form internally on various organs, which will not be visible.
The symptoms are easily confused with Marine White Spot disease or benign fin ray fractures. Your veterinarian will take a sample to evaluate under the microscope to determine the cause of the white nodules.
There is no effective treatment for this disease at present. Most of the time, these lesions will resolve on their own, provided your fish is not stressed.
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Gas bubble disease occurs when small microbubbles coalesce in the skin and eyes of fishes. The small microbubbles are formed in the environment most commonly from barely misaligned plumbing. These diffuse into the fish through the gills and squeeze out of the blood stream in various places. You may see one large bubble or multiple smaller bubbles in the skin, fins and/or eyes of your fish.
If left untreated, these bubbles can cause irritation and allow pathogens an easy route to enter into your fish's body.
Please do not attempt to pop the bubbles yourself! Your veterinarian will handle the procedure safely, with your fish properly anesthetized, and provide supportive care. It is critical to locate the source of the microbubbles so the condition does not recur.Continue to 5 of 5 below.
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Head and Lateral Line Erosion, more commonly known as Hole in the Head Disease, does not have a specific definitive cause. It can effect many species and causes erosion of the head and lateral line. Cases may range from a small spot to the entirety of the head and side body.
There are many potential causes of Head and Lateral Line Erosion. The most common is stress, which can come from various sources. Once the stressor is identified and eliminated, your fish will likely require supportive care in order to make a full recovery. Severe cases may never return to their original appearance.
This is just a small sampling of the diseases that may affect saltwater fish. In order to decrease your fish's chances of getting sick, be sure to quarantine all new fish and invertebrate additions, provided a good environment with enough room for all, good water quality, and feed an appropriate diet. If you are concerned about your fish's health, contact your aquatic veterinarian.