Is your cat marking everything with urine? Have you tried everything from Feliway diffusers to Rescue Remedy? Maybe it works for a while, but then your cat starts again, or stops in one place only to start up in another place?
A cat urinating outside the box can be marking behavior, or it can also be caused by environmental or health issues. Try this H.I.S.S. Test to help figure out what’s going on and find solutions. Your cat may, in fact, be using urine to mark territory, but there are other possibilities as well.
A number of health issues can prompt urinating outside the box. Kidney disease and diabetes can increase the volume of urine so kitty can’t reach the potty in time. Feline lower urinary tract disease (FLUTD) can be caused by bladder stones, crystals, bacterial infection, or cancer that creates bladder inflammation (cystitis). Cystitis hurts and makes cats feel like they need to “go” more often, and sometimes they’ll blame the litter box for discomfort so they look for other places to urinate. On top of that, 60 percent of these cases are idiopathic — no known cause — making the medical condition hard to treat. Idiopathic cystitis signs tend to go away on its own within about five to seven days but can recur especially during stressful situations.
Cats will snub the litter box if it’s in the wrong spot (too near food or sleeping spots); it’s dirty; or sometimes if they must share with another cat. They may not want to “go” after another kitty or want a different box for solids and another for liquids. Kitties also have very specific preferences for kinds of box filters or surfaces, and sometimes the box may be too small to accommodate a big-tailed feline.
Finally, cats use urine to mark territory that’s important to them. Cats often get along quite well until they reach social maturity between 2 to 4 years of age. House-soiling usually involves squatting and depositing urine or feces on a horizontal surface, while urine marking tends to target vertical surfaces. However, cats can urine-mark on either horizontal or vertical surfaces. Intact male cats are the more typical culprit for urine-spraying, but neutered cats of either sex can decide to baptize the house.
Spreading the scent of urine around actually helps lower the stress level of cats. Cats like routine and anything that disrupts their normal day-to-day could put their tails in a twist. That could be anything from new drapes, a stray cat that patrols outside the window, or even your son’s work schedule being unpredictable. In the spring when stray cats go into heat, the scent and sound can prompt indoor cats to become more stressed and increase territorial marking.
S=Symptoms, Signs & Solutions
Waxing/waning and recurrence of marking behavior can be associated with FLUTD signs of house-soiling rather than marking, so I would urge that the cat is seen by a vet. Cats with painful bladders often squat-and-pee in the bathtub or right in front of the owner (sort of a way to cry for help).
That said, stress can make either medical or behavioral problems worse. So whether your cat’s issue has to do with health issues or strictly territorial marking, a stress-reduction program should help.
Feliway & Rescue Remedy
If you have another cat, your cats may be at the age when they’ve reached social maturity and may be jostling for position within the household. The Feliway synthetic pheromone can be helpful because it signals the cat that her environment is safe. Rescue Remedy also works for a percentage of cats for reducing stress.
Eliminate Odor & Create New Associations
Pay attention to where your cat urine marks. A black light should make urine glow, so you know where she’s marked. Clean thoroughly with an odor neutralizer product. Try Anti-Icky-Poo, which eliminates the odor that draws cats back to the scene (and scent) of the crime.
Next, change the association of the place by placing toys, a cat bed, and/or food bowls right on top of the spot. Cats won’t want to spray where they play, sleep or eat. Spraying the Feliway on the illegal spot also can deter a repeat.
House of Plenty
Next, add more cat “stuff” so that your cat won’t have to argue with another cat over ownership. Offer at least one litter box per cat, plus one extra (the 1+1 rule), and space these in different parts of the house. Make sure they are extra big, because some cats just like the added space to maneuver.
Similarly, provide 1+1 scratching objects and resting places in a variety of places throughout the home. Extra vertical space can allow cats to climb and get away from each other, while each “owns” her own resting spot. Single-cat shelves (only space for one cat) can keep cats from having to share.