The harlequin rasbora, a fascinating little fish, belongs to the family Cyprinidae. It comes from the Malay Peninsula, Thailand, and Sumatra. It is the most common and the easiest to keep member of the Rasbora family and was first imported into Europe in 1906, making its way to the rest of the world’s aquariums very soon thereafter.
|Scientific Name||Rasbora Heteromorpha|
|Common Name||Harlequin Rasbora, Harlequin, Harlequin Fish, Red Rasbora, Red Razor|
|Origin||The Malay Peninsula, Thailand, and Sumatra|
|Adult Size||2 inches|
|Lifespan||3 to 4 years|
|Tank Level||All levels|
|Minimum Tank Size||10 gallons|
|Temperature||72–79 degrees Fahrenheit (22–26 degrees Celsius)|
Origin and Distribution
Harlequin rasbora habitats are rivers and streams of the Malay Archipelago, Thailand, Kuala Lumpur, Selangor, Singapore, Borneo, and Sumatra. In the wild, these fish prefer peat swamps and gently flowing areas of forest streams and tributaries where vegetation is thick. Light in these areas is filtered by leaves and tends to be fairly dim.
The water in the harlequin rasbora’s natural setting is extremely soft, and its temperature often rises quite high during the day and drops much lower at night. Nowadays, most of these colorful little fish have been raised on Florida tropical fish farms and in aquariums so their natural need for very soft water has been somewhat abated.
Coloring and Markings
The appearance of the harlequin rasbora, with a dark triangular patch extending back from the base of the caudal fin, is very distinctive. The silvery tone of the rest of the body may be broken with yellow or reddish markings, which has resulted in this species' nickname, the Red Razor. Males tend to be brighter in color and have slimmer bodies than females. The female has a rounder lower profile and, at breeding time, becomes quite plump.
Shoal fish should always be kept in odd numbers of 3, 5, 7, or more to ensure that there will be odd numbers of males and females. This encourages competition and interest among the shoal, keeping them together, rather than having them pair off in different areas of the aquarium.
In nature, the harlequin rasbora does not usually tolerate contact with fish of other species; if you keep them in a community tank, keep at least 5 or 7 (or more), and make sure there are plenty of places to hide. Choose small, peaceful tankmates that are unlikely to annoy or attack them. In a peaceful tank, your harlequin rasboras will be happy community members and will not bother any other fish in the tank.
Harlequin Rasbora Care and Habitat
Your goal in setting up your tank is to recreate the harlequin rasbora's native habitat. As it prefers slow-moving, highly vegetated, peaty waterways, you'll want to start with a dark sandy or gravely substrate and add some leafy detritus. Also include plenty of live plants, rocks, and driftwood. Be sure to keep the plants toward the back and sides of the tank to leave room for an active shoal of fish. Keep lights relatively dim, and consider adding some floating vegetation to the tank.
In a well-planted aquarium with other docile community fish, harlequin rasboras have been known to breed and raise their young with little or no assistance from the aquarist. This is indeed a fun fish to breed, offering beginners and experts alike very satisfying results.
Harlequin Rasbora Diet
Rasboras are not picky eaters and enjoy a varied diet of high-quality flakes or granules and live foods such as daphnia and artemia. You can supplement this diet with meaty options such as freeze-dried bloodworms or tubifex worms. Rasbora also enjoy an occasional treat of fresh vegetables.
Male and female rasboaras are roughly the same size, but the sexes are easily distinguished. Males are much redder in the dorsal and tail fins as well as in the caudal peduncle region. The female is more golden and, when full of roe, her belly is deeper than that of her mate.
Breeding the Harlequin Rasbora
Since the advent of air travel, harlequin rasboras have been imported by the tens of thousands from their native Malaya. They are shipped 500 to a 1-cubic-foot box containing a plastic bag filled with pure oxygen and 1 1/2 gallons of their natural water. The fact that few die only increases the demand for them. In spite of the constant demand, the source of supply in their natural home is never depleted. They swarm in great numbers in pools in Malaya and are all caught in a net, then the pool fills again in what seems like weeks—further proof that this is a hardy fish that loves to breed.
To breed harlequin rasboras, set up a separate breeding tank that includes broad-leafed Cryptocoryne plants, the rasbora's favorite location for laying eggs in its natural environment.
First, place a well-conditioned adult male with a younger female, heavy with roe, in the breeding tank late in the day. Courtship should probably begin early the next morning. It is instigated by the male and includes the usual fin-flaring and dancing in front of his mate. The pair starts swimming around the tank together and eventually moves under a suitable broad leaf of a plant. Here they turn upside down and deposit a few eggs. Then they move off and court some more before coming back to spawn again, which will probably take place on the same plant, or even the same leaf.
When a healthy pair is finished, they will have deposited 25 to 100 eggs. Rasboras are not avid egg eaters, but they will eat some of the eggs occasionally. Therefore, it's a good idea to remove the parents as soon as breeding is concluded.
The fry hatch in about 24 hours and are free swimming on the third day. At this point, feed them infusoria or liquid fry food or an egg yolk squeezed through a cheesecloth for the first week. Then, wean them slowly onto baby brine shrimp and commercial dry ground fry food. They grow extremely fast and are a pretty good size within three months if fed well and often. Add a sponge filter after the first week, and change 10 percent of the water every week after the first month.
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