Infectious Diseases and Conditions in Dogs

Viruses, Bacteria, and Parasites That Can Hurt a Canine

Veterinarian with dog
Ghislain & Marie David de Lossy / Getty Images

The health benefits of owning a dog are numerous, and studies have shown that a dog can influence social and cognitive development in children and promote an active lifestyle for the families that care for them. The catch is that you only remain happy if your dog is healthy and happy, too.

Learn how to keep your canine a healthy member of your household by arming yourself with information about common infectious diseases that can affect dogs and ways to prevent dog illness.

Brucellosis

Canine brucellosis is a highly contagious infection caused by the bacterium, Brucella canis. Infected dogs usually develop an infection of the reproductive system or a venereal infection. The disease can cause reproductive problems such as infertility, spontaneous abortions, and can spread to the intervertebral discs, the eyes, the kidneys, or the brain. This disease is more common in dogs that have not been spayed or neutered.

Coccidiosis

Coccidiosis is a parasitic infection that most commonly causes watery, mucus-type diarrhea. If it is not treated, it can damage the lining of the intestinal tract over time. Treatment is routine and effective. Diagnosis is made by microscopic examination of the feces. Readily available drugs eliminate the parasite to the point that the animal's immune system can clear the infection. Permanent damage to the gastrointestinal system is rare, and a dog will usually suffer no long-lasting negative effects

Distemper

Canine distemper is a very contagious and serious viral illness which has no cure. The virus spreads through the air and by direct or indirect contact with an infected animal (such as a pet bed or water bowl). The disease first affects a dog’s tonsils and lymph nodes before attacking the respiratory, gastrointestinal, urogenital, and nervous systems.  

Ehrlichiosis

Ehrlichiosis is also known as "tracker dog disease," "canine hemorrhagic fever," and "tropical canine pancytopenia." Bacteria are spread by the brown dog tick and the Lone Star tick. Infected dogs may have a fever, swollen lymph nodes, respiratory distress, weight loss, bleeding disorders, and, occasionally, neurological disturbances. This may last two to four weeks. Treatment includes a long course of antibiotics, usually for six weeks or so.

Giardia

If your dog gets giardia, a protozoan commonly responsible for causing diarrhea in dogs, the stool may range from soft to watery, often has a greenish tinge to it, and occasionally contains blood. Infected dogs tend to have excess mucus in the feces. Vomiting may occur in some cases. The signs may persist for several weeks and gradual weight loss may become apparent. If your dog is diagnosed with this disease, a parasite medication taken for two weeks should wipe it out.

Kennel Cough

Kennel cough (also known as canine infectious tracheobronchitis) is a highly contagious respiratory disease that can cause dogs to have a honking cough. This disease spreads to other dogs easily through the air, direct contact, and shared water and food bowls. It is called kennel cough because boarding and daycare facilities are known as the most popular place where this disease is spread around. It is highly treatable with an antibiotic and cough medicine to help alleviate the coughing, which can irritate the dog's trachea. It is preventable. A vaccine can be given to dogs annually to protect against the bordatella bacterium, the most common cause of kennel cough.

Leptospirosis

Leptospirosis is a bacteria that lives in water contaminated by the infected urine of wildlife, rodents, and domestic animals. It commonly leads to kidney disease but some of the strains can result in liver damage, bleeding disorders, neurologic issues, and eye inflammation. Signs of leptospirosis may include fever, shivering, muscle tenderness, reluctance to move, increased thirst, changes in the frequency or amount of urination, dehydration, vomiting, diarrhea, loss of appetite, lethargy, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and mucous membranes). This disease can be treated with antibiotics and supportive care; it is preventable with a vaccine.

Lyme Disease

Though Lyme disease is one of the most common tick-transmitted diseases, only 5 to 10 percent of dogs infected with the bacterium that causes this disease show symptoms. The symptoms can include lameness, swollen joints, and fever. Prevalent in New England, it is believed that 50 to 75 percent of dogs in the Northeast have the disease but never show symptoms. To treat it, antibiotics are effective. The best way to prevent the disease is to remove ticks immediately and use tick prevention products like collars and spot treatments. There is a Lyme disease vaccine, but its use is controversial.

Parvovirus

Parvovirus can strike in two areas of the dog, the intestinal tract (most common), which is characterized by vomiting, diarrhea, weight loss, and loss of appetite. The less common area is the heart of young puppies. The second form is most serious and often results in death. The incidence of parvovirus has reduced greatly with early vaccination in puppies. Since this is a virus, there is no real cure for it. The best way to help a dog recover from this is to treat the symptoms and not allow the dog to dehydrate or develop a secondary bacterial infection while sick.

Rabies

Rabies, contained in saliva, can be transmitted from the bite of an infected animal, most commonly found in the wild, like skunks, bats, raccoons, coyotes, and foxes. While the infection rate is about 15 percent in dogs, an unvaccinated dog that was bitten by a known rabid animal must be quarantined for up to six months. This is a deadly virus. A human can also be infected by a bite from an infected animal. The rabies vaccination, required in most states in the U.S., is considered highly effective in preventing the spread of rabies in the community.