The physical exam is one of the most important things your veterinarian does for your dog. If your dog is sick, the first thing your vet will do is an examination. Routine checkups are also extremely important for healthy dogs so that health problems can be detected before your dog even seems sick.
What Happens During a Veterinary Physical Exam?
When your dog is getting a physical exam, the veterinarian will check your dog's health from nose to tail. Here are the key areas your vet examines:
Eyes: Your vet will look at your dog's eyes for signs of vision loss, old age changes, discharge, redness, cataracts, etc. The vet may also use a light to make sure the pupils respond to light and that the vessels and retinas inside the eyes appear normal.
Ears: Your vet will check the ears for redness, odor or ear debris. The vet may use a tool called an otoscope (a cone with a light inside) to see the ear canals. Redness, odor or ear debris could be a sign of ear infection.
Mouth and Digestive System: Your vet will look at the teeth and gums for signs of dental disease. Your vet will also check mucus membranes: the gum color should be pink but not red; when the gum is pressed, it should turn white and pink color should return within two seconds. Your vet will briefly look at the anus, the end of the digestive system, to make sure there are no signs of issues. In some cases, a rectal exam is done if there are concerns about the rectum.
Lymph nodes: Your vet will palpate the lymph nodes around your dogs face, neck, axillary area (armpits), inguinal area (where insides of back legs meet abdomen) and back of the knees. Any swelling of the lymph nodes could mean underlying illness.
Heart and Circulation: Using a stethoscope, your vet will listen to the heart to make sure the rhythm is normal and there is no murmur or other abnormal sounds. The vet will feel your dog's pulse as well.
Respiratory System: Your vet will also listen to your dog's lungs with the stethoscope, making sure the lung sounds are normal during breathing. Your vet will also look at your dog's nose to check for discharge, redness or a dry, cracked appearance.
Abdomen: Your vet will palpate your dog's abdomen to feel for abnormalities and make sure the abdomen is not painful. The vet may be able to feel structures that do not belong, such as masses, or organs that are irregular in size or shape.
Skin and Coat: Your vet will check for skin issues, such as flaking, redness, and inflammation. The vet will also look for signs of fleas. The vet will look at the hair coat to make sure it is shiny and full, not dull or patchy.
Joints, Bones, Muscles, Nervous System: Your vet will feel your dog's joints for pain/stiffness and possibly look at the reflexes as well. The vet may also watch your dog walk to make sure gait is normal.
Urinary and Reproductive System: Your vet will briefly look at the genitals to make sure nothing appears abnormal. The vet will also make note of your pet's reproductive status (spayed/neutered or intact). A rectal exam may be done in intact males to palpate the prostate.
Overall Body Condition: Your vet will assess your dog's overall condition. He or she will likely rate your dog's body condition score as well. The body condition score is either rated on a scale of 1-5 or 1-10. The low end of the scale indicates the dog is severely underweight; the high end means morbid obesity.